22nd Annual AAAR Conference
October 20-24, 2003
Hilton Anaheim Hotel, Anaheim, California

Plenary Lectures

The conference committee is proud to have four distinguished speakers for plenary sessions. Each speaker offers a stimulating and insightful presentation on topics of current and emerging interest to aerosol scientists.

Tuesday October 21 - 8:00AM - 8:45AM
Plenary Session I

Observations of New Particle Formation and Growth Rates in the Atmosphere
New particles are frequently formed in the atmosphere in numbers much greater than the number of preexisting particles. Instrumentation advances have dramatically expanded the current understanding of nucleation, which could be an important global source of cloud condensation nuclei and play an important role in regulating climate. In this lecture, observations of particle production and growth rates in various locations and major experimental and theoretical challenges to an understanding of nucleation will be explored.

Dr. Peter H. McMurry
Professor and Head of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
BIOGRAPHY: Dr. Peter H. McMurry was the 2001 recipient of the AAAR David Sinclair Award for sustained excellence in aerosol research and technology. He completed his Ph.D. at Caltech in 1977 and has been a faculty member in the Particle Technology Laboratory at the University of Minnesota since then. He is a past President and long-time member of AAAR. His research on atmospheric aerosols includes the development of new techniques to measure properties of gas-borne particles. He has used these techniques to further the fundamental understanding of aerosol processes, including new particle formation.

Wednesday October 22 - 8:00AM - 8:45AM
Plenary Session 2

Emissions-to-Intake Relationships for Air Pollution Sources
Exposure science is the underemphasized nexus linking humans with pollutants on the one hand and physical sciences with biological sciences on the other. This presentation explores one aspect of exposure - emissions-to-intake relationships - from an engineering science perspective. These relationships are explored using examples of important contemporary air pollution sources: motor vehicles, power plants, and cigarettes.

Dr. William W. Nazaroff
Professor of Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
BIOGRAPHY: Dr. William Nazaroff is a third-generation native of Southern California. His high-school years included a mediocre running career that provided first-hand knowledge of the respiratory effects of air pollution during strenuous exercise. He earned degrees at UC Berkeley in Physics (BA, 1978) and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (MEng, 1980). His early research career at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (1980-1984) and subsequent graduate studies (PhD, Caltech, 1989) convinced him that air pollution was a subject worthy of committing his career to study and teach. Since joining the Berkeley faculty in 1989, Nazaroff's research has addressed the physics and chemistry of indoor air pollutants and the application of engineering analysis to air pollution exposure assessment. He is coauthor of a textbook, Environmental Engineering Science (Wiley, 2001). Earlier this year, he developed a new course at Berkeley on Climate-Change Mitigation.

Thursday October 23 - 8:00AM - 8:45AM
Plenary Session 3

Electrospray Wings for Molecular Elephants
Electrospray Ionization (ESI) uses an intense electric field to disperse a solution of molecules into an aerosol of tiny, highly charged droplets. By a mechanism that remains the subject of much disagreement and debate, evaporation of solvent from those droplets transforms their solute molecules into gas phase ions. The process is so "soft", i.e. gentle, that the structure of even the most delicate species remains intact. Because those ions can have a high degree of multiple charging, their mass/charge ratios are almost always less than 3000 or so, even when their molecular weights are in the millions! For these reasons, ESI is frequently said to have revolutionized the analysis of biological molecules. This recitation will include an account of how ESI got started and some speculation on where it may be going.

Dr. John Fenn
Research Professor, Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University
Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven Connecticut, USA
Biography: Dr. John Fenn shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his pioneering work in electrospray ionization. He received a BA in Chemistry from Berea College in 1937 and a PhD from Yale in 1940. After a dozen years in industry he became Director of Project SQUID, a program of pure and applied research in "those fields of science relating to jet propulsion", administered by Princeton for the Office of Naval Research. In 1959 he joined Princeton's faculty as Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Princeton and in 1967 returned to Yale as Professor of Chemical Engineering. Subject to mandatory retirement in 1987, he remained at Yale as a Research Scientist until 1993 when he moved to Richmond, VA where he is Research Professor of Chemistry at Virginia Commonwealth University. Author of over 100 papers and an inventor on 17 patents, he has been a visiting scientist in Italy, Israel, Germany, Japan, India, Australia and China. John Fenn is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Friday, October 24 - 8:00AM - 8:45AM
Plenary Session 4

Understanding the Health Effects of Air Pollution: An Epidemiologist's Quagmire
Results from epidemiological studies provide key evidence in determining public health impacts of particles and other air pollutants. The "next-generation" of PM epidemiology will require close collaboration between aerosol scientists and epidemiologists. This talk will highlight some of the challenges in air pollution epidemiology, such as measurement and modeling issues and appropriate interpretation of epidemiologic findings.

Dr. Paige E. Tolbert
Associate Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
BIOGRAPHY: Dr. Paige Tolbert received her BA in biochemistry from Harvard University, and both her MSPH in environmental science and her PhD in epidemiology from the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. She joined the faculty of the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University in 1993. For the past ten years, she has conducted research in environmental epidemiology, with emphasis on studies of chemical exposures and health outcomes using intensive lab-based approaches as well as large, classical epidemiologic study designs. Ongoing work includes studies of air pollution in Atlanta in relation to cardiorespiratory endpoints. She has also published on various environmental exposures and selected cancers, endocrine disorders, and asthma.

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AAAR Tutorials

8:00 AM - 9:40 AM

1. Introduction to Aerosol Mechanics I
Dr. William C. Hinds, UCLA School of Public Health, Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Science, Los Angeles, California

Abstract: These two courses form a sequence that covers basic aerosol mechanics (particle motion) at an introductory level. Topics include: stokes law, settling velocity, slip correction, aerodynamic diameter, non-spherical particles, acceleration, relaxation time, stopping distance, impaction, isokinetic sampling, diffusion, and coagulation. The course covers theory and applications and is suitable for those new to the field and for others who want to brush up on the basics.

William Hinds is a Professor of Environmental Health Sciences at the UCLA School of Public Health. He received a Bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering from Cornell University and a doctorate in Environmental Health from Harvard University.

2. Particle Control Techniques
Dr. David Leith, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Abstract: Particle control is important to protect the indoor and outdoor environments from contaminants that affect health and the quality of life, and to protect products from contamination during their manufacture. This tutorial will present methods that can be used to control particles. The techniques discussed will include cyclones, scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, and filters.

David Leith is Professor of Environmental Sciences and Engineering at the University of North Carolina. He received BS and MS degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Cincinnati, and a doctorate in Environmental Health Sciences from Harvard University.

3. Aerosol Nucleation
Dr. Barbara Wyslouzil, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Chemical Engineering Department

Abstract: Nucleation is the process by which the new fragments of a more stable phase first appear in the supersaturated metastable phase. This tutorial will examine the basics of nucleation in an aerosol context. Topics to be addressed will include: How do the initial phases of a new particle appear? What are the driving forces? Does any theory adequately describe this highly non-linear context?

Barbara Wyslouzil is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester MA. She received a B.Sc. Degree in Mathematics and Engineering from Queen's University, a M.Sc. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Alberta and her Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Caltech. Her research focuses on the formation, growth and structure of nanodroplets.

4. Bioaerosols: Extending Non-Culture Based Methods for Characterizing Microorganisms and Primary Biological Materials in Air
Dr. Mark Hernandez, Associate Professor of Environmental Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder

Abstract: This presentation will provide an overview of technical considerations for adapting modern aerosol sampling protocols for the direct microscopic and molecular characterization of airborne viruses, bacteria, fungi, and their spores. The presentation will include a synopsis of recent research, where culture-based bioaerosol investigations were complemented with other microbiological characterization methods employing selective biological stains and modern molecular techniques including genetic probes, immunochemical assays, and genetic libraries. Molecular and microscopic enumeration methods will be compared to traditional culture-based methods in terms of detection limits, bias and recovery factors, and interpretations of results. Molecular developments for bioaerosol characterization have been predominantly applied to indoor environments, and the challenges of extending current bioaerosol characterization technology to outdoor environments, and disinfection assessments will be addressed.

Mark Hernandez is an associate professor of environmental engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. His research interfaces classical industrial hygiene and sanitary engineering with recent advances in molecular biology to study airborne primary biological materials and the microbial ecology of aerosols under in situ conditions. Dr. Hernandez teaches courses on introductory environmental engineering, wastewater engineering, and applied environmental microbiology.

10:00 AM - 11:40 AM

5. Introduction to Aerosol Mechanics II
Dr. William C. Hinds, UCLA School of Public Health, Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Science, Los Angeles, California

Abstract: These two courses form a sequence that covers basic aerosol mechanics (particle motion) at an introductory level. Topics include: stokes law, settling velocity, slip correction, aerodynamic diameter, non-spherical particles, acceleration, relaxation time, stopping distance, impaction, isokinetic sampling, diffusion, and coagulation. The course covers theory and applications and is suitable for those new to the field and for others who want to brush up on the basics.

William Hinds is a Professor of Environmental Health Sciences at the UCLA School of Public Health. He received a Bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering from Cornell University and a doctorate in Environmental Health from Harvard University.

6. Indoor Aerosols
Dr. William W. Nazaroff, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California

Abstract: Indoor aerosols cause human exposure to pollution, disease transmission, soiling of works of art, and electronic device failures. This tutorial will provide an overview of the major processes that govern the concentrations and fates of indoor aerosols, focusing on these specific topics: indoor emission sources, penetration of outdoor particles, deposition onto indoor surfaces, resuspension, control techniques. The relation of these processes to human inhalation exposure will also be explored. The tutorial will address both basic principles and the latest research findings.

William Nazaroff earned a PhD in Environmental Engineering Science (Caltech, 1989). His research group studies the physics and chemistry of indoor air pollutants and also develops and applies methods for assessing human exposure to air pollutants. He is coauthor of a recently published textbook (WW Nazaroff and L Alvarez-Cohen, Environmental Engineering Science, Wiley, 2001).

7. An Intuitive Approach to Light Scattering from Single Particles and Aggregates
Dr. Chris Sorensen, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas

Abstract: This tutorial presents a novel approach to understanding and predicting light scattering from spheres (the classical Mie scattering problem), and aggregates (such as fractals). The method is based on scaling arguments comparing characteristic length scales of the particle and the wave and a physical interpretation of the Ewald-Oseen Extinction theorem. A physical understanding of the scattering process, hidden by the complexities of the electromagnetic theory, and the tools necessary to succeed with quantitative measurements in the lab or the field are gained from this approach. This new approach is appropriate for both the beginner and the experienced practitioner.

Chris Sorensen is a Distinguished Professor of Physics and Chemistry at Kansas State University. He enjoys teaching. His research interests include light scattering, fractal aggregates, aggregation kinetics, synthesis of nanoparticles, and supercooled water and aqueous solutions.

8. Filter-Based Aerosol Sampling and Analysis
Dr. Judith Chow, Research Professor, Desert Research Institute, University and Community College System of Nevada, Reno

Abstract: Current knowledge of, and recent developments in, sampling and analysis of particulate matter (PM) from ambient air are summarized and evaluated. Special requirements are delineated for the following measurement purposes: 1) compliance monitoring, 2) exposure and health assessment, and 3) source apportionment. Sampling topics include size selective inlets, sampling media, sample handling, and sample storage. Laboratory analysis topics include advantages and disadvantages of different measurement approaches for mass, water-soluble ions, elements, and carbon fractions on filters as related to the different monitoring purposes. Conditions under which comparable and different concentrations can be expected for different methods and procedures are explained. Methods and examples of intra- and inter-laboratory comparison, data validation, blank subtraction, and error propagation are given.

Dr. Judith Chow is a Research Professor at the Desert Research Institute (a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada) with more than 25 years of experience in aerosol sampling, laboratory analysis, and statistical data analysis. She leads DRI's Environmental Analysis Facility where she supervises denuder/filter processing and chemical operations and develops cost-effective, yet accurate, methods for aerosol sampling and analysis. Dr. Chow prepared USEPA's guidance for chemically speciated PM2.5 measurements and authored the 1995 A&WMA Critical Review of measurement methods for determining PM2.5 and PM10 compliance. She has authored or co-authored more than 100 publications on aerosol analysis and its application to source and receptor samples.

1:00 PM - 2:40 PM

9. Particle Transport Modeling
Dr. Daniel J. Rader, Principal Member of Technical Staff, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Abstract: Despite a century of intensive research, the need for a complete, fundamental understanding of particle transport persists. Several areas of active aerosol research rely heavily on particle transport models, including the health risk assessment of respirable particles and contamination control in semiconductor manufacturing. The course will begin with an overview of the key mechanisms controlling particle transport, including drag, Brownian motion, gravity, inertia, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis. The interaction between particles and the surrounding gas will be described from a fundamental point of view by applying the momentum transfer approach, wherein the forces acting on a particle are calculated directly from the gas molecular velocity distribution. Numerical methods for predicting particle transport in a variety of gas flows will be reviewed. Examples will be presented for several relevant applications (e.g., contamination control and particle transport in inertial collectors).

Dan Rader received a bachelor's degree in Engineering from Caltech and a doctorate in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Minnesota. His current research focuses on the transport of small (free-molecular) particles in both continuum and rarefied gas flows.

10. Analytical Methods for Source Apportionment
Dr. James J. Schauer, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, College of Engineering and the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison

Abstract: The course will cover chemical analysis strategies of particulate matter that can be used for source attribution, with an emphasis of gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The course will cover sample collection, sample extraction, instrumental analysis, key source tracers for different particulate matter sources, quantification and QA/QC. The course is suitable for those seeking to perform chemical measurements of particulate matter for source apportionment and for those who want to use such measurements for source attribution.

Jamie Schauer is an Assistant Professor in the Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program and Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and serves as the Director of Air Chemistry for the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. He received a Bachelor's degree in Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering from the Colorado School of Mines, a Master's degree in Environmental Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley and a doctorate in Environmental Engineering Science from Caltech.

11. Secondary Aerosol Formation
Dr. Paul J. Ziemann, Air Pollution Research Center and Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside

Abstract: Secondary aerosol is an important component of atmospheric fine particles that generally consists of organics, sulfates, and nitrates. The processes that lead to the formation of this material are often complex, and can involve gas and particle phase chemistry, nucleation, and gas-particle partitioning. This course will cover the major chemical reactions and partitioning processes involved in the formation of secondary organic and inorganic aerosol using examples from laboratory and field studies.

Paul Ziemann is an Associate Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry at the University of California, Riverside. He received a doctorate in Chemistry from Penn State University and was a postdoctoral researcher in the Particle Technology Laboratory at the University of Minnesota.

12. Aerosols and the Respiratory Tract: A Primer
Dr. Maura J. Sheehan, Professor of Environmental Health, West Chester University, Downingtown, Pennsylvania

Abstract: This course will provide lecture and discussion about the basic anatomy and physiology of the human respiratory tract. This information will be linked to the deposition and clearance of aerosols from the respiratory tract. The importance of these basic concepts to the better understanding of, prevention, and treatment of respiratory disease will be discussed.

Dr. Maura J. Sheehan, CIH, received a Sc.D. in Industrial Hygiene from the University of Pittsburgh in 1981. She has been a Certified Industrial Hygienist since 1984. She currently is Professor of Environmental Health at West Chester University in Pennsylvania, where she teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in industrial hygiene, toxicology, and environmental health. Prof. Sheehan's research concerns the generation, measurement, and control of aerosols relevant to workplace exposures. She recently served a two-year appointment as chairperson of an OSHA Standards Advisory Committee on Metalworking Fluids. Prof. Sheehan is active in AAAR and the American Industrial Hygiene Association.

3:00 PM - 4:40 PM

13. Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols
Dr. Spyros Pandis, Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Abstract: Modeling of the formation, transport, aging, and removal of atmospheric particulate matter requires the numerical simulation of a wide variety of physical and chemical processes: emissions, atmospheric dispersion and advection, evaporation/condensation, interactions with water and clouds, coagulation, nucleation, dry and wet removal. The modeling task is further complicated by the need to describe a wide size range, and a variety of organic and inorganic components. Several modeling approaches for the above processes and their applications will be presented. The techniques used in available three-dimensional chemical transport models (CMAQ, PMCAMx, UAM-AERO, etc.) will be discussed.

Spyros Pandis is the ABB Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Department of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University. His research interests include atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric pollution modeling, aerosol science, and environmental public policy analysis.

14. Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Modeling
Dr. John G. Watson, Research Professor, Desert Research Institute, University and Community College System of Nevada, Reno

Abstract: The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model is applied to chemically speciated particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements taken in source emissions and at ambient monitors to estimate contributions from different source types and their uncertainties. Course topics include: 1) theoretical and empirical basis of the CMB; 2) relationships to other receptor models such as UNMIX and Positive Matrix Factorization; 3) applications and validation protocol; 4) sources of model input data; and 5) examples of problem solving using the CMB. CMB software installation, data preparation, operation, and transfer of output files to other data analysis software will be demonstrated.

Dr. John G. Watson has more than 25 years of experience in environmental problem solving using receptor models. He developed the algorithms and structure currently in the U.S. EPA's CMB8 Windows-based software, conducted and published CMB evaluation studies, and applied the CMB and other receptor-oriented methods in numerous environmental problem-solving studies.

15. Photochemistry of Atmospheric Particles and Aqueous Drops
Dr. Cort Anastasio, Associate Professor, Atmospheric Science Program, Department of Land, Air & Water Resources, University of California at Davis

Abstract: Sunlight, directly and indirectly, drives most of the chemistry in the atmosphere. While photochemistry in the gas phase has been studied for decades, the photochemistry of atmospheric condensed phases is a relatively new field. This tutorial will give an overview of the rich variety of photochemical processes that are known to occur in atmospheric particles and fog and cloud drops. We will begin by discussing the fundamentals of photochemistry in condensed phases and the photochemical reactions of specific compounds such as nitrate, nitrite, iron, and several organic compounds. In the second half we will examine the formation of oxidants, and simultaneous transformations of reduced nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur compounds, in illuminated tropospheric particles and aqueous drops.

Dr. Anastasio received his bachelor's degree in Chemistry from Brown University and his doctorate in Environmental Chemistry from Duke University. In 1995-1996 he was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Chemistry and the Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry at York University in Toronto. He has been at the University of California at Davis since 1996. His research focuses on the chemistry and photochemistry of fog and cloud drops, atmospheric particles, snow and ice.

16. Physiological Responses to Inhaled Particles
Dr. Owen R. Moss, Biomathematical and Physical Sciences Division, CIIT Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

Abstract: Participants will gain a feeling for the robust nature of the respiratory system and some understanding of conditions where inhaled particles can impact major physiological responses. Examples will be given of the impact of nanometer diameter - to just barely inhalable - particles on physiological responses leading to obstructive, restrictive, vascular, malignant, and infectious diseases including respiratory distress syndrome. This tutorial is complementary to the tutorial "Aerosols and the Respiratory Tract: A Primer".

Owen Moss is a Senior Scientist in the Biomathematics and Physical Sciences Division at CIIT Centers for Health Research. He received a Bachelor's degree in Physics from New Mexico State University and a Masters Degree in Radiation Biology and a Ph.D. in Toxicology from the University or Rochester. His research interests focus on particle-matter health effects.

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Special Symposia

Symposium 1: Chemical and Biological Agent Detection
Organized by: David Fergenson, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Symposium II: California Regional Particulate Air Quality Study (CRPAQS)
Organized by: Michael J. Kleeman, University of California-Davies, Civil Environmental Engineering and Karen Magliano, California Air Resource Board

Symposium III: Heterogeneous Aerosol Chemistry
Organized by: James N. Smith, NCAR and Jose L. Jimenez, University of Colorado

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